Identification of targets for prostate cancer immunotherapy.

We performed profiling of the immune microenvironment of castration-resistant (CRPC) and castration-sensitive (CSPC) prostate cancer (PC) in order to identify novel targets for immunotherapy.

PD-L1 and CD3/CD8 immunohistochemistry, PD-L1/2 fluorescent in situ hybridization, tumor mutation burden, microsatellite instability, and RNA-seq of 395 immune-related genes were performed in 19 CRPC and CSPC. Targeted genomic sequencing and fusion analysis were performed in 17 of these specimens.

CD276, PVR, and NECTIN2 were highly expressed in PC. Comparison of CRPC versus CSPC and primary versus metastatic tissue revealed the differential expression of immunostimulatory, immunosuppressive, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes. Unsupervised clustering of differentially expressed genes yielded two final clusters best segregated by CRPC and CSPC status.

CD276 and the alternative checkpoint inhibition PVR/NECTIN2/CD226/TIGIT pathway emerged as relevant to PC checkpoint inhibition target development.

The Prostate. 2019 Jan 06 [Epub ahead of print]

Antonios Papanicolau-Sengos, Yuanquan Yang, Sarabjot Pabla, Felicia L Lenzo, Shumei Kato, Razelle Kurzrock, Paul DePietro, Mary Nesline, Jeffrey Conroy, Sean Glenn, Gurkamal Chatta, Carl Morrison

OmniSeq, Inc., Buffalo, New York., Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, New York., Center for Personalized Cancer Therapy and Division of Hematology and Oncology, UCSD Moores Cancer Center, La Jolla, California.