Magnetic resonance imaging-transrectal ultrasound fusion image-guided prostate biopsy: Current status of the cancer detection and the prospects of tailor-made medicine of the prostate cancer.

Multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) has been increasingly used to diagnose clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) because of its growing availability and its ability to combine anatomical and functional data. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) fusion imaging provides MRI information with TRUS images for prostate biopsies. This technique combines the superior sensitivity of MRI for targeting suspicious lesions with the practicality and familiarity of TRUS. MRI-TRUS fusion image-guided prostate biopsy is performed with different types of image registration (rigid vs. elastic) and needle tracking methods (electromagnetic tracking vs. mechanical position encoders vs. image-based software tracking). A systematic review and meta-analysis showed that MRI-targeted biopsy detected csPCa at a significantly higher rate than did TRUS-guided biopsy, while it detected significantly fewer cases of insignificant PCas. In addition to the high accuracy of MRI-targeted biopsy for csPCa, localization of csPCa is accurate. The ability to choose the route of biopsy (transperineal vs. transrectal) is required, depending on the patients' risk and the location and size of suspicious lesions on mpMRI. Fusion image-guided prostate biopsy has the potential to allow precise management of prostate cancer, including active surveillance, radical treatment, and focal therapy.

Investigative and clinical urology. 2018 Dec 27 [Epub]

Sunao Shoji

Department of Urology, Tokai University Hachioji Hospital, Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan.