The androgen-directed treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) is fraught with the recurrent profile of failed treatment due to drug resistance and must be addressed if we are to provide an effective therapeutic option. The most singular difficulty in the treatment of PCa is the failure to respond to classical androgen withdrawal or androgen blockade therapy, which often develops as the malignancy incurs genetic alterations and gain-of-function somatic mutations in the androgen receptor (AR). Physical cellular damaging therapeutic agents, such as radiation or activatable heat-generating transducers would circumvent classical "anti-functional" biological resistance, but to become ultimately effective would require directed application modalities. To this end, we have developed a novel AR-directed therapeutic agent by creating bivalent androgen hormone-AF-2 compounds that bind with high affinity to AR within cells. Here, we used molecular modeling and synthetic chemistry to create a number of compounds by conjugating 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to various AF-2 motif sequence peptides, through the use of a glycine and other spacer linkers. Our data indicates these compounds will bind to the AR in vitro and that altering the AF-2 peptide composition of the compound does indeed improve affinity for the AR. We also show that many of these bivalent compounds can readily pass through the plasma membrane and effectively compete against androgens alone.
Hormones & cancer. 2018 Dec 18 [Epub ahead of print]
Shafinaz Chowdhury, Lenore K Beitel, Rose Lumbroso, Enrico O Purisima, Miltiadis Paliouras, Mark Trifiro
Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research - Jewish General Hospital, 3755 Cote-Ste-Catherine Rd., Montreal, QC, H3T 1E2, Canada., Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada., National Research Council Canada, Montreal, QC, Canada., Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research - Jewish General Hospital, 3755 Cote-Ste-Catherine Rd., Montreal, QC, H3T 1E2, Canada. .