Acute and late toxicities in localized prostate cancer patients treated with low-dose 125I brachytherapy (110 Gy) in combination with external beam radiation therapy versus brachytherapy alone (160 Gy).

The aim of this analysis was to compare acute and late toxicities between low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT) (110 Gy) in combination with 45 Gy in 25 fractions external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and LDR-BT (160 Gy) alone for localized prostate cancer.

One hundred five consecutive patients with localized prostate cancer treated from May 2014 to May 2017 were included in this retrospective analysis. Sixty patients received combination therapy and 45 patients received BT monotherapy. The LDR-BT procedure was performed using 125I seeds.

The median follow-up time was 28 months in both groups. Three-year effect rates were overall survival: 100% in both groups. The biochemical failure rate was 2.3% in the combination group and 0% in the monotherapy group (p = 0.373). No patients died during the study period. In both groups, almost all the patients experienced acute urethritis. There was a significant difference between the combination therapy group (8.3%) and BT monotherapy group (11.1%) in late genitourinary (GU) toxicities ≥ grade 2 (p = 0.035). Only 2 patients (3.3%) in the combination therapy group developed late ≥ grade 2 rectal hemorrhage. There were no significant differences between two groups in hematuria ≥ grade 2 (p = 0.068) or rectal hemorrhage ≥ grade 2 (p = 0.206).

To our knowledge, this is the first report to compare the GU and gastrointestinal toxicities between the combination therapy and BT monotherapy (160 Gy) for localized prostate cancer. Unexpectedly, there were more late GU toxicities (except for hematuria) in the BT monotherapy group.

Journal of contemporary brachytherapy. 2018 Oct 31 [Epub]

Yuki Mukai, Narihiko Hayashi, Izumi Koike, Hisashi Kaizu, Shoko Takano, Madoka Sugiura, Eiko Ito, Mizuki Sato, Hiroji Uemura, Masahiro Yao, Masaharu Hata

Department of Radiation Oncology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine., Department of Urology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine., Department of Urology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama, Japan.