Current therapeutic options in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

The tumors of many patients with prostate cancer eventually become refractory to androgen deprivation therapy with progression to metastatic castration-resistant disease. Significant advances in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) have been made in recent years, and new treatment strategies have recently been made available. The aim of this report was to schematically review all the approved pharmacologic treatment options for patients with mCRPC through 2018, analyzing the efficacy and possible side effects of each therapy to assist clinicians in reaching an appropriate treatment decision. New biomarkers potentially of aid in the choice of treatment in this setting are also briefly reviewed.

We performed a literature search of clinical trials of new drugs and treatments for patients diagnosed with mCRPC published through 2018.

Two new hormonal drugs, abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide have been approved by FDA in 2011 and 2012, respectively for the treatment of patients with mCRPC and have undergone extensive testing. While these treatments have shown a benefit in progression-free and overall survival, the appropriate sequencing must still be determined so that treatment decisions can be made based on their specific clinical profile. Cabazitaxel has been shown to be an efficient therapeutic option in a postdocetaxel setting, while its role in chemotherapy-naïve patients must still be determined. Sipuleucel-T and radium-223 have been studied in patients without visceral metastases and have achieved overall survival benefits with good safety profiles. The feasibility and efficacy of combinations of new treatments with other known therapies such as chemotherapy are currently under investigation.

Drug development efforts continue to attempt to prolong survival and improve quality of life in the mCRPC setting, with several therapeutic options available. Ongoing and future trials are needed to further assess the efficacy and safety of these new drugs and their interactions, along with the most appropriate sequencing.

Seminars in oncology. 2018 Oct 30 [Epub ahead of print]

Gianluca Ingrosso, Beatrice Detti, Daniele Scartoni, Andrea Lancia, Irene Giacomelli, Muhammed Baki, Giulio Carta, Lorenzo Livi, Riccardo Santoni

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, Tor Vergata General Hospital, Rome, Italy., Unit of Radiation Oncology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Florence, Italy. Electronic address: ., Unit of Radiation Oncology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Florence, Italy.