Accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging to detect significant prostate cancer and index lesion location

Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate appears to improve prostate cancer detection, but studies comparing mpMRI to histopathology at the time of radical prostatectomy (RP) are lacking. This retrospective study determined the accuracy of mpMRI predicting Gleason score and index lesion location at the time of RP, the current gold standard for diagnosis.

Between April 2013 and April 2016, a database of all men aged more than 40 years who underwent RP after positive transrectal ultrasound biopsy by an experienced urological surgeon was collated at a single regional centre. This was cross-referenced with a database of all men who had mpMRIs performed at a single centre and reported according to Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS version 1) during this period to generate a sample size of 64 men. A Spearman's rho test was utilized to calculate correlation.

Median age of patients was 64 years, the median prostate-specific antigen at RP was 6.22 ng/mL. mpMRI was positive (≥PI-RADS 3) in 85.9% of patients who underwent RP. More than 92% of participants had Gleason ≥7 disease. A positive relationship between mpMRI prostate PI-RADS score and RP cancer volume was demonstrated. An anatomical location correlation calculated in octants was found to be 89.1% accurate.

mpMRI accurately detects prostate cancer location and severity when compared with gold standard histopathology at the time of RP. It thus has an important role in planning for future prostate biopsy and cancer treatment.

ANZ journal of surgery. 2018 Sep 26 [Epub ahead of print]

Hariette Goldman, Neha Singh, Catherine Harding, Joe McGirr, Alexa Seal, Ian Duncan, Steven Sowter

School of Medicine, The University of Notre Dame Australia, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia., Rural Clinical School, The University of New South Wales, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia., Calvary Healthcare Regional Imaging, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales, Australia.