Prostate cancer presents itself in a heterogeneous way with both aggressive and indolent forms. Despite the controversy surrounding its use, prostate-specific antigen screening ultimately leads to a greater number of diagnosed patients. One of the biggest challenges in clinical practice is to select the right patients for biopsy and, among diagnosed patients, to differentiate tumors with an indolent course from those with an unfavorable prognosis, in order to determine the best therapeutic decision for each case, avoiding unnecessary interventions. Currently, several types of biomarkers are available for clinical use in patients with prostate cancer, which include blood-based (prostate-specific antigen, Prostate Health Index®, 4K score®); urine sample-based (PCA3, SelectMDx®, ExoDx Prostate IntelliScore®); and biopsy, transurethral resection, or radical prostatectomy tissue-based (ConfirmMDx®, Oncotype®, Prolaris®, Decipher®). The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current state of evidence and to highlight recent advances in the evaluation and diagnosis of prostate cancer, with emphasis on biomarkers related to diagnosis and to prognostic evaluation of localized prostate cancer.
Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine. 2018 Sep [Epub]
Arie Carneiro, Paulo Priante Kayano, Álan Roger Gomes Barbosa, Marcelo Langer Wroclawski, Carolina Ko Chen, Giulio Costa Cavlini, Guilherme Jose Reche, Rafael Sanchez-Salas, Marcos Tobias-Machado, Adam G Sowalsky, Bianca Bianco
1 Discipline of Urology, Department of Surgery, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, São Paulo, Brazil., 2 Discipline of Urology, Department of Surgery, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil., 3 Department of Urology, Institut Mutualiste Montsouris, Paris, France., 4 Laboratory of Genitourinary Cancer Pathogenesis, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA., 5 Center for Human Reproduction and Genetics, Department of Collective Health, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, São Paulo, Brazil.