Inflammation and NF-κB Signaling in Prostate Cancer: Mechanisms and Clinical Implications.

Prostate cancer is a highly prevalent form of cancer that is usually slow-developing and benign. Due to its high prevalence, it is, however, still the second most common cause of death by cancer in men in the West. The higher prevalence of prostate cancer in the West might be due to elevated inflammation from metabolic syndrome or associated comorbidities. NF-κB activation and many other signals associated with inflammation are known to contribute to prostate cancer malignancy. Inflammatory signals have also been associated with the development of castration resistance and resistance against other androgen depletion strategies, which is a major therapeutic challenge. Here, we review the role of inflammation and its link with androgen signaling in prostate cancer. We further describe the role of NF-κB in prostate cancer cell survival and proliferation, major NF-κB signaling pathways in prostate cancer, and the crosstalk between NF-κB and androgen receptor signaling. Several NF-κB-induced risk factors in prostate cancer and their potential for therapeutic targeting in the clinic are described. A better understanding of the inflammatory mechanisms that control the development of prostate cancer and resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy will eventually lead to novel treatment options for patients.

Cells. 2018 Aug 29*** epublish ***

Jens Staal, Rudi Beyaert

VIB-UGent Center for Inflammation Research, Unit of Molecular Signal Transduction in Inflammation, VIB, 9052 Ghent, Belgium., VIB-UGent Center for Inflammation Research, Unit of Molecular Signal Transduction in Inflammation, VIB, 9052 Ghent, Belgium. .