Long-term outcomes analysis of low-dose-rate brachytherapy in clinically T3 high-risk prostate cancer

The available data demonstrating that superiority of LDR brachytherapy (LDR-BT) boost in high-risk prostate cancer patients under represents patients with extracapsular extension (T3a) and/or seminal vesicle invasion (T3b) have been limited. We report long-term clinical outcomes data for patients with cT3a/b disease receiving LDR-BT.

Ninety-nine men (median age: 69.4 years) with cT3a/bN0M0 high-risk prostate adenocarcinoma received definitive LDR-BT or LDR-BT boost after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) at a single institution between 1998 and 2007. About 86% of patients received androgen deprivation therapy. Freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF), prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS), and overall survival (OS) was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method with the Phoenix definition used as definition of failure. Cox regression analysis was used to compare outcomes between clinical stage, initial PSA, Gleason Score, and percent core positive rate.

With a median followup of 7 years, 7-year rate of FFBF, PCSS, and OS for the entire cohort was 65.2% (±5.6%), 90.1% (±3.6%), and 77.9% (±4.7%), respectively. LDR-BT boost patients achieved a 7-year FFBF rate of 73.5 (±6.5%). No significant difference in outcomes was present between T3a or T3b disease, Gleason score, iPSA stratification and percent core positive rates.

LDR-BT, primarily as a boost in conjunction with ADT and EBRT, is not only feasible, but also highly effective in men with cT3a and cT3b high-risk prostate cancer resulting in excellent biochemical control and survival outcomes. LDR-BT boost implantation of patients should be strongly considered for cT3 patients given the merits of trimodality care.

Brachytherapy. 2018 Aug 21 [Epub ahead of print]

Manuj Agarwal, Arpit M Chhabra, Neha Amin, Michelle H Braccioforte, Jason K Molitoris, Brian J Moran

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Electronic address: ., Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD., Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD., Prostate Cancer Foundation of Chicago, Westmont, IL.