Carcinosarcoma of the prostate: case report with molecular and histological characterization

We report a case of prostatic carcinosarcoma, a rare variant of prostatic cancer, which is composed of a mixture of epithelial and mesenchymal components with a generally poor outcome.

We aim to identify molecular alterations, in particular copy number variations of AR and c -MYC genes, methylation and expression of glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), AR, and phosphorylated AR expression.

We found a distinct molecular pattern between adenocarcinoma and carcinosarcoma, which was characterized by high AR copy number variation gain; positive expression of PD-L1, AR, and phosphorylated AR; low espression of GSTP1 in epithelial component. The sarcomatoid component had a lower gain of the AR gene, and no expression of PD-L1, AR, phosphorylated AR, or GSTP1. Both components had a gain of c-MYC copy number variation.

Our findings suggest that carcinosarcoma has specific molecular characteristics that could be indicative for early diagnosis and treatment selection.

The International journal of biological markers. 2018 Aug 12 [Epub ahead of print]

Samanta Salvi, Valentina Casadio, Filippo Martignano, Giorgia Gurioli, Maria Maddalena Tumedei, Daniele Calistri, Roberta Gunelli, Matteo Costantini

1 Biosciences Laboratory, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Meldola, Italy., 2 Department of Medical Biotechnologies, University of Siena, Siena, Italy., 3 Department of Urology, Morgagni Pierantoni Hospital, Forli, Italy., 4 Pathology Unit, Morgagni Pierantoni Hospital, Forlì, Italy.