Positron emission tomography (PET) has been commonly and successfully used, in combination with computed tomography (CT) and more recently magnetic resonance (MRI), in the workup of intermediate or high-risk prostate cancer (PCa). Nowadays, new specific receptor targeted PET tracers in prostate cancer imaging have been introduced; one of the most used is 68Ga-PSMA, that evaluates the expression of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). This tracer has been rapidly taken into account for its better sensitivity and specificity compared to lipid metabolism tracers, such as 11C/18F labelled fluorocholine. Besides, in the era of theranostics, this tracer is having a useful application not only for imaging but also for therapeutic purposes. The aim of this review article is, in the first part, to give an overview of the main indications and future development of 68Ga-PSMA imaging, using PET/CT or PET/MRI, according to the clinical course of the disease and in view of the current use of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) and choline PET in the management of PCa. In the second part, a brief overview of the promising 18F-labelled PSMA tracers and the current use of PSMA radionuclide therapy will be provided.
La Radiologia medica. 2018 Aug 16 [Epub ahead of print]
Simona Malaspina, Ugo De Giorgi, Jukka Kemppainen, Angelo Del Sole, Giovanni Paganelli
Residency Programme in Nuclear Medicine, University of Milan, Milan, Italy., Medical Oncology Unit, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Meldola, Italy., Turku PET Centre, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland., Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy. ., Nuclear Medicine Unit, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Meldola, Italy.