The Rotterdam European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer risk calculators (ERSPC-RCs) help to avoid unnecessary transrectal ultrasound-guided systematic biopsies (TRUS-Bx). Multivariable risk stratification could also avoid unnecessary biopsies following multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI).
To construct MRI-ERSPC-RCs for the prediction of any- and high-grade (Gleason score ≥3 + 4) prostate cancer (PCa) in 12-core TRUS-Bx±MRI-targeted biopsy (MRI-TBx) by adding Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) and age as parameters to the ERSPC-RC3 (biopsy-naïve men) and ERSPC-RC4 (previously biopsied men).
A total of 961 men received mpMRI and 12-core TRUS-Bx±MRI-TBx (in case of PI-RADS ≥3) in five institutions. Data of 504 biopsy-naïve and 457 previously biopsied men were used to adjust the ERSPC-RC3 and ERSPC-RC4.
Logistic regression models were constructed. The areas under the curve (AUCs) of the original ERSPC-RCs and MRI-ERSPC-RCs (including PI-RADS and age) for any- and high-grade PCa were compared. Decision curve analysis was performed to assess the clinical utility of the MRI-ERSPC-RCs.
MRI-ERSPC-RC3 had a significantly higher AUC for high-grade PCa compared with the ERSPC-RC3: 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-0.88) versus 0.76 (95% CI 0.71-0.80, p<0.01). Similarly, MRI-ERSPC-RC4 had a higher AUC for high-grade PCa compared with the ERSPC-RC4: 0.85 (95% CI 0.81-0.89) versus 0.74 (95% CI 0.69-0.79, p<0.01). Unlike for the MRI-ERSPC-RC3, decision curve analysis showed clear net benefit of the MRI-ERSPC-RC4 at a high-grade PCa risk threshold of ≥5%. Using a ≥10% high-grade PCa risk threshold to biopsy for the MRI-ERSPC-RC4, 36% biopsies are saved, missing low- and high-grade PCa, respectively, in 15% and 4% of men who are not biopsied.
We adjusted the ERSPC-RCs for the prediction of any- and high-grade PCa in 12-core TRUS-Bx±MRI-TBx. Although the ability of the MRI-ERSPC-RC3 for biopsy-naïve men to avoid biopsies remains questionable, application of the MRI-ERSPC-RC4 in previously biopsied men in our cohort would have avoided 36% of biopsies, missing high-grade PCa in 4% of men who would not have received a biopsy.
We have constructed magnetic resonance imaging-based Rotterdam European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (MRI-ERSPC) risk calculators for prostate cancer prediction in transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy and MRI-targeted biopsy by incorporating age and Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System score into the original ERSPC risk calculators. The MRI-ERSPC risk calculator for previously biopsied men could be used to avoid one-third of biopsies following MRI.
European urology. 2018 Aug 03 [Epub ahead of print]
Arnout R Alberts, Monique J Roobol, Jan F M Verbeek, Ivo G Schoots, Peter K Chiu, Daniël F Osses, Jasper D Tijsterman, Harrie P Beerlage, Christophe K Mannaerts, Lars Schimmöller, Peter Albers, Christian Arsov
Department of Urology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: ., Department of Urology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands., Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands., Department of Urology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands., Department of Urology, Haga Teaching Hospital, The Hague, The Netherlands., Department of Urology, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, Den Bosch, The Netherlands., Department of Urology, AMC University Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands., Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Medical Faculty, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany., Department of Urology, Medical Faculty, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.