Ga-68-PSMA PET/CT in treatment-naïve patients with prostate cancer: Which clinical parameters and risk stratification systems best predict PSMA-positive metastases?

To evaluate the accuracy of clinical parameters and established pre-treatment risk stratification systems for prostate cancer (PCa) in predicting PSMA-positive metastases in men undergoing Ga-68-PSMA PET/CT as initial staging examination.

A retrospective analysis in 108 consecutive treatment-naïve patients with biopsy-proven PCa undergoing Ga-68-PSMA PET/CT (median age, 72 years [range, 49-82 years]) was performed. Prediction of PSMA-positive metastases by serum PSA, clinical T stage (cT), ISUP group, percentage of positive biopsy cores, and derived risk scores (D'Amico risk classification system, Roach [RF], Yale formula [YF], and Briganti nomogram [BN]) was examined with ROC analysis.

Any PSMA-positive metastases were found in 36 of 108 patients, including LN metastases in 28 patients, extrapelvic LN metastases in 15 patients, and organ metastases in 19 patients (bone, 19; lung, 1). AUCs for PSA, cT, ISUP, and percentage of positive biopsy cores regarding PSMA-positive metastases did not differ significantly (range, 0.6-0.8; each P > 0.05). D'Amico (AUC, 0.61-0.64) was inferior to RF (0.76-0.83), YF (0.81-0.86), and BN (0.73 to 0.88; each P < 0.05). Among the 89 high-risk patients (D'Amico), decision for or against PET imaging based on RF (cut-off, >18.0), YF (>10.8), or BN (>8.0) would have prevented PSMA PET/CT in 4 (5%), 15 (17%), or 18 patients (20%), respectively, while preserving a sensitivity ≥95% for PSMA-positive metastases.

Clinical parameters and established risk stratification systems for PCa can predict Ga-68-PSMA PET-positive metastases in treatment-naïve patients. Especially YF and BN may improve identification of patients with the highest probability of metastatic disease detected by Ga-68-PSMA PET/CT.

The Prostate. 2018 Jul 05 [Epub ahead of print]

Julian M Rogasch, Hannes Cash, Sebastian Zschaeck, Sefer Elezkurtaj, Winfried Brenner, Bernd Hamm, Marcus Makowski, Holger Amthauer, Christian Furth, Alexander D J Baur

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Klinik für Nuklearmedizin, Berlin, Germany., Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Klinik für Urologie, Berlin, Germany., Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Klinik für Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Berlin, Germany., Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Institut für Pathologie, Berlin, Germany., Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Klinik für Radiologie, Berlin, Germany.