Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a dramatic disintegration of the jaw that affects patients treated with bisphosphonates (BPs) for diseases characterized by bone loss. These diseases are often metastasizing cancers (like multiple myeloma, breast cancer and prostate cancer (Aragon-Ching et al. , 2009)) as well as osteoporosis. BRONJ is incompletely understood, although it is believed to arise from a defect in bone remodeling-the intricate process by which sensory osteocytes signal to osteoclasts and osteoblasts to resorb and form bone in response to stimuli. Further, tooth extraction and infection have been overwhelmingly linked to BRONJ (Ikebe, 2013). Because bone cells are highly networked, the importance of multicellular interactions and mechanotransduction during the onset of these risk factors cannot be overstated. As such, this perspective addresses current research on the effects of BPs, mechanical load and inflammation on bone remodeling and on development of BRONJ. Our investigation has led us to conclude that improved in vitro systems capable of adequately recapitulating multicellular communication and incorporating effects of osteocyte mechanosensing on bone resorption and formation are needed to elucidate the mechanism(s) by which BRONJ ensues.
Bone reports. 2018 Mar 15*** epublish ***
Estee L George, Yi-Ling Lin, Marnie M Saunders
The University of Akron, Olson Research Center 319, 302 E. Buchtel Ave., Akron, OH 44325, USA., University of California, Los Angeles School of Dentistry, 10833 Le Conte Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.