Cabazitaxel regimens inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells and enhances the anti-tumor properties of PEDF with various efficacy and toxicity

Taxanes chemotherapies represent the major therapeutic alternative for symptomatic mCRPC. While docetaxel is the most commonly prescribed Taxane for mCRPC; cabazitaxel has been approved for patients unresponsive to docetaxel. Still mCRPC remains incurable and patients often experience severe side effects. Recently, the FIRSTANA trial first demonstrated the absence of superiority in overall survival between cabazitaxel and docetaxel in mCRPC patients. Inversely, different toxicity were reported suggesting that cabazitaxel may provide a first line treatment option for some patients urging for a deeper characterization of cabazitaxel mechanisms of action as well as a re-evaluation of cabazitaxel conventional dose and schedule. In this study, our goal was therefore to evaluate the anti-tumor efficacy of various cabazitaxel regimens delivered as monotherapy or in combination with PEDF, a known anti-angiogenic and anti-neoplastic agent.

CRPC cells undergoing Taxane treatment were evaluated for cell proliferation, migration and death, and apoptosis using crystal violet staining, chemotaxis, cell cycle, and TUNEL assays. In vitro data were corroborated in CL1 CRPC xenografts where mice received intermittent or metronomic low-doses cabazitaxel ± PEDF.

We found that cabazitaxel inhibits the proliferation of CRPC cells with a higher efficacy than docetaxel in vitro. As expected, high-doses of Taxanes blocked the cells in mitosis. Surprisingly, low-doses of cabazitaxel induced more cell death than docetaxel mainly through apoptosis. In vivo, intermittent cabazitaxel lead to disease stabilization when combined with PEDF. Unexpectedly, low-doses of cabazitaxel delayed tumor growth with severe toxicity for some of the doses tested. Other results showed that PEDF and low-doses of cabazitaxel combination inhibited the migration of tumor cell and increased the tumoricidal activity of macrophages toward prostate tumor cells.

Our findings highlight the great promise of cabazitaxel drug and predict a possible move of cabazitaxel forward within the therapeutic sequence of prostate cancer.

The Prostate. 2018 May 10 [Epub ahead of print]

Courtney Jarvis, Thomas Nelius, Dalia Martinez-Marin, Souad R Sennoune, Stéphanie Filleur

Department of Urology, Texas Tech University-Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, Texas., Department of Cell Physiology and Molecular Biophysics, Texas Tech University-Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, Texas.