The aim is to assess for a difference in the incidence of metastasis (IM) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels at diagnosis in patients with Gleason score (GS) 3+4 versus 4+3 prostate cancer using a large veterans affairs database.
A retrospective review of 1402 medical records from 5 VA hospitals was conducted. The study period was from 2009 to 2014. Primary endpoints were IM and PSA levels at diagnosis. A secondary endpoint was overall survival.
Chi-square tests for categorical variables, Student's t-test for continuous, normally distributed variables, and rank sum tests for continuous nonnormally distributed variables.
There were 1050 patients with GS3+4 and 352 with GS4+3. There were no differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the study population. PSA at the time of diagnosis was significantly higher in the GS4+3 patients compared to GS3+4 (18.0 vs. 11.4, respectively; P < 0.001). The IM at diagnosis was higher in the GS4+3 patients (10/352) compared to GS3+4 (9/1041) (2.8% vs. 0.9%; P = 0.005). In an adjusted model, GS4+3 was associated with higher PSA, higher IM at diagnosis. There was no difference in overall survival between the 2 groups though a 23% reduction in overall survival in the GS4+3 was noted (P = 0.53).
Our results indicate that patients with GS4+3 prostate cancers have higher PSA levels at diagnosis. GS4+3 is associated with 3-fold increased risk of IM at diagnosis than GS3+4 though the overall incidence is low. Further research is needed to assess whether GS4+3 patients need routine staging imaging investigations at the time of diagnosis similar to patients with higher Gleason scores (GS ≥8).
Urology annals. 0000 Jan [Epub]
Mohamed H Kamel, Mahmoud I Khalil, Wilson M Alobuia, Joseph Su, Rodney Davis
Department of Urology, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA., Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA.