Second generation antiandrogens have improved overall survival for men with metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer; however, the antiandrogens result in suppression of androgen receptor (AR) activity in all tissues resulting in dose limiting toxicity. We sought to overcome this limitation through encapsulation in a prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-conjugated nanoparticle. We designed and characterized a novel nanoparticle containing an antiandrogen, enzalutamide. Selectivity and enhanced efficacy was achieved through coating the particle with PSMA. The PSMA-conjugated nanoparticle was internalized selectively in AR expressing prostate cancer cells. It did not elicit an inflammatory effect. The efficacy of enzalutamide was not compromised through insertion into the nanoparticle; in fact, lower systemic drug concentrations of enzalutamide resulted in comparable clinical activity. Normal muscle cells were not impacted by the PSMA-conjugated containing antiandrogen. This approach represents a novel strategy to increase the specificity and effectiveness of antiandrogen treatment for men with castrate resistant prostate cancer. The ability to deliver higher drug concentrations in prostate cancer cells may translate into improved clinical end points including overall survival.
Molecular pharmaceutics. 2018 Apr 04 [Epub ahead of print]
Chellappagounder Thangavel, Maryna Perepelyuk, Ettickan Boopathi, Yi Liu, Steven Polischak, Deepak A Deshpande, Khadija Rafiq, Adam P Dicker, Karen E Knudsen, Sunday A Shoyele, Robert B Den