Prostate adenocarcinoma represents a leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Increased emphasis on understanding the molecular basis of prostate cancer has identified a substantial burden of homologous recombination (HR) pathway mutations, which are enriched in castrate-resistant disease. This discovery has yielded novel therapeutic opportunities. Areas covered: We will discuss the treatment of castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), with a focus on the use of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in this space. Evidence for use in HR-deficient patients will be outlined with discussion of the mechanism of action for this drug class, pathways of resistance, and approaches for expanding PARP inhibitor use to non-HR-deficient prostate cancer subgroups. Expert Opinion: PARP inhibition represents an exciting tool for management of HR-inactivated CRPC. With rapid adoption of next-generation sequencing technologies and other molecular techniques, the number of patients in this category is likely to increase. Ongoing and future investigations will be critical for improved understanding of the promise and appropriate treatment sequencing of PARP inhibition and optimal options for HR-proficient and -deficient prostate cancer populations. Questions remain about the clinical significance of monoallelic vs. biallelic HR mutations, the relevance of germline vs. somatic-only mutations, and the importance of mutations in non-canonical HR genes.
Expert opinion on emerging drugs. 2018 Mar 29 [Epub ahead of print]
Eric S Christenson, Emmanuel S Antonarakis
a Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center , Baltimore , MD.