The incidence of prostate adenocarcinoma (PCa) is increased with the use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). In the current study, we aimed to investigate the impact of 5- alpha- reductase inhibitors (5-ARI) on pathological progression in patients followed by active surveillance (AS).
Records of 69 patients with localized prostate cancer under AS (PSA ≤15 ng/mL, PSAD ≤0.20, ≤cT2c, Gleason sum ≤3+3, the number of cancer positive cores ≤3) were evaluated retrospectively. Patients were followed-up with quarterly PSA testing and semiannual digital rectal examination during the first 2 years, and semiannual PSA testing thereafter. Repeat biopsies were done annually and whenever indicated by clinical findings. Pathological progression was defined as increasing Gleason grade, number of cancer-positive cores, and/or increasing percentage of cancer in any core.
Patients using (29/69: 42%) and not using (40/69: 58%) 5-ARI were followed for a median of 39 (IQR: 23-45) and 23.5 (IQR: 17-37.5) months, respectively. Pathological progression was observed in 32% (22/69) of the patients at a median of 25 (IQR: 18-39) months. Pathological progression was observed in 34.5% (10/29) and 30% (12/40) of the patients using and not using 5-ARI, respectively (Log-rank p=0.4151). Definitive treatment was done in 31% (9/29) and 47.5% (19/40) of the patients using and not using 5-ARI, respectively. Patients who did not use 5-ARI received definitive treatment earlier than 5-ARI users (Log-rank p=0.0342). On multivariate analysis, more than 2 cancer-positive cores (HR: 11.62) and age (HR: 0.94) were independently associated with pathological progression (p<0.05), rather than 5-ARI use (p=0.148).
More than 2 cancer- positive cores at the initial biopsy was the strongest covariate associated with pathological progression; these patients should not be offered AS. There was no impact of 5-ARI use on pathological progression in AS.
Turkish journal of urology. 2018 Mar 01 [Epub]
Tayyar Alp Özkan, Oğuz Özden Cebeci, İbrahim Çevik, Özdal Dillioğlugil
Department of Urology, Health of Sciences University, Kocaeli Derince Training and Research Hospital, Kocaeli, Turkey., Department of Urology, Okan University, School of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey., Department of Urology, Kocaeli University School of Medicine, Kocaeli, Turkey.