Immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors is beginning to be recognized as a valid weapon for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) when chemotherapy fails. Ipilimumab (ipi) is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks the activity of CTLA4. It also has a molecular weight of 148 kDa and is water-soluble at physiological pH. Ipi was first approved by the FDA for the treatment of malignant melanoma and is currently being studied in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, with promising early results. Areas covered: The aim of this review is to collate the most significant preclinical and clinical studies available that look at ipi to propose new strategies for the future. Expert opinion: Additional studies are required to reduce toxicity and increase the activity of ipi in PCa. A possible strategy is to combine ipi with standard anti-cancer therapeutics such as vaccines, PDL1 inhibitors, antiandrogen drugs, and chemotherapy agents. Several initial results have suggested that combination strategies are useful to increase the activity in mCRPC, even if the toxicity of the treatment can increase. The activity of combined treatments is still not predictable, but considering the ongoing studies, we believe that they have good potential that will lead to the discovery of an optimal therapeutic strategy.
Expert opinion on biological therapy. 2017 Dec 22 [Epub ahead of print]
Concetta Alaia, Mariarosaria Boccellino, Silvia Zappavigna, Evzen Amler, Lucio Quagliuolo, Sabrina Rossetti, Gaetano Facchini, Michele Caraglia
a Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and General Pathology , University of Campania "L. Vanvitelli" , Naples , Italy., b Department of Biophysics, 2nd Faculty of Medicine , Charles University Prague , Prague , Czech Republic., d Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Uro-Gynaecological Oncology , Istituto Nazionale Tumori IRCCS "Fondazione G. Pascale" - Napoli , Italy.