Oligometastases in prostate cancer : Metabolic response in follow-up PSMA-PET-CTs after hypofractionated IGRT

Prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PSMAPET/CT) is a new and evolving diagnostic method in prostate cancer with special impact on treatment planning in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Initial results of metabolic response in repeated PSMA PET/CTs after hypofractionated IGRT for metastatic lesions are reported here.

Of 280 patients investigated with 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in the period from 01/2014 through 12/2016 in the authors' department, patients were selected according to the following criteria: oligometastatic disease at initial PSMA PET/CT defined as not more than five metastatic lesions, hypofractionated IGRT to all lesions, no systemic therapy in the last 6 months and during follow-up, and at least one follow-up PSMA PET after radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was administered to all PSMA PET-detected lesions (CTV = PET-GTV + 1 to 2 mm), mostly with 35 Gy in five fractions (one lesion with four fractions of 7 Gy due to dose constraints, two lymph nodes with 50 Gy in 25 fractions to an extended volume plus a boost of 7 Gy × 2 to the PET-positive volume). Metabolic response of irradiated lesions was evaluated on repeated PSMA PET/CTs according to PERCIST criteria. Five patients with a total number of 12 PSMA PETs matched the criteria. Patients received radiotherapy to all PET-positive lesions and had at least one (in one case three) follow-up PSMA PET examinations after radiotherapy with an interval to the first PET of 2-15 months; the median follow-up for all patients was 11 months.

The mean prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values at the time of examination were 8.9 ± 8.5 ng/ml (median 3.3 ng/ml, range 0.17-21.8 ng/ml). A total number of 18 metastatic deposits were detected. The PET-positive tumor volume was 5.9 ± 13.3 cm3 (median 1.25 cm3). The mean standardized uptake value (mean SUVmax) of the 18 metastatic lesions decreased from 19.9 ± 23.3 (mean ± SD) prior to RT to 5.4 ± 4.6 at post-radiotherapy PSMA PET/CT. Using PERCIST criteria, 14 lesions (78%) showed a metabolic response in PSMA PET with a reduction of SUV of at least 30%, as well as a significant decrease in lesion size; in seven of these lesions, no uptake of 68Ga-PSMA was detectable. In follow-up PET scans, only two lesions showed metabolic progression with an increase in SUVmax yielding a local progression-free survival of 88% after 1 year. There was a correlation between the time interval after radiotherapy (median 3 months, range 1-9 months) and response (p = 0.04) with better metabolic response after longer follow-up.

Preliminary results of this study show high metabolic response rates of PSMA PET-positive metastatic lesions after hypofractionated radiotherapy in follow-up PSMA PET with promising local control rates. An interval of several months may be required to fully estimate the efficacy of radiotherapy in control PSMA PET.

Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Rontgengesellschaft ... [et al]. 2017 Nov 27 [Epub ahead of print]

René Baumann, Mark Koncz, Ulf Luetzen, Fabian Krause, Juergen Dunst

Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Str. 3, 24105, Kiel, Germany., Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel, Kiel, Germany., Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel, Arnold-Heller-Str. 3, 24105, Kiel, Germany. .