Pattern of relapse and dose received by the recurrent intraprostatic nodule in low- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with single fraction 19 Gy high dose-rate brachytherapy

The purposes of this study were to investigate the pattern of relapse in patients with low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with 19-Gy high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) and to calculate the dose received by the area of recurrence.

Patients included in this analysis were treated under a Phase II randomized trial that evaluated the role of 19-Gy HDR-BT monotherapy in low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancers. Multiparametric prostate MRI and prostate biopsy were performed in patients with suspicious local recurrence. The site of local relapse was compared with the initial site of disease. The dose received by the site of recurrence was investigated through registration of the posttreatment multiparametric prostate MRI with the HDR-BT treatment plan.

Eight of 87 treated patients were found to have local recurrence after 19-Gy HDR-BT. Seven of the eight recurrences were at the site of initial bulk disease. Seven patients were found to have a more aggressive histology in the posttreatment biopsy. The mean volume of prostate that had received 100% of prescription dose was 97%. Mean dose to area of recurrence was 29.1 Gy, whereas dose to 98% and dose to 90% of the recurrence were 21.6 Gy and 23.2 Gy, respectively.

The relapse pattern after a single 19-Gy HDR-BT is predominantly associated with the site of initial disease. This lends some rationale to future strategies of further focused dose escalation to initial site of disease, notwithstanding the fact that the calculated biologically equivalent dose using linear-quadratic assumptions is already very high.

Brachytherapy. 2017 Nov 11 [Epub ahead of print]

Lucas C Mendez, Ananth Ravi, Hans Chung, Chia-Lin Tseng, Matt Wronski, Moti Paudel, Merrylee McGuffin, Patrick Cheung, Andrew Loblaw, Gerard Morton

Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada., Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: .