Penile cancer is a rare and devastating disease, especially at advanced stages. The etiology of penile cancer is multifactorial with multiple established risk factors including infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV). Approximately 40% of penile cancers are attributable to HPV, although the literature describing HPV as a prognostic factor is mixed. The pathogenesis of HPV infection as well as vaccination practices may provide valuable therapeutic agents to treat this rare and difficult disease.
The Urologic clinics of North America. 2016 Sep 03 [Epub]
Gregory J Diorio, Anna R Giuliano
Department of Genitourinary Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 USF Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL 33612, USA. Electronic address: ., Center for Infection Research in Cancer (CIRC), Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 USF Magnolia Drive, MRC-CANCONT, Tampa, FL 33612, USA.