This review aims to discuss the current state-of-the-art of sentinel node (SN) mapping in urological malignancies. The principles and methodological aspects of lymphatic mapping and SN biopsy in urological malignancies are reviewed. Literature search was restricted to English language. The references of the retrieved articles were examined to identify additional articles. The review also includes meta-analyses published in the past 5 years. SN biopsy for penile cancer is recommended by the European Association of Urology as the preferred staging tool for clinically node-negative patients with at least T1G2 tumours (level of evidence 2a, Grade B). The feasibility of SN biopsy in prostate cancer has been repeatedly demonstrated and its potential value is increasingly being recognised. However, conclusive prospective clinical data as well as consensus on methodology and patient selection are still lacking. For bladder, renal and testicular cancer, only few studies have been published, and concerns around high false-negative rates remain. Throughout the years, the uro-oncological field has portrayed a pivotal role in the development of the SN concept. Recent advances such as hybrid tracers and novel intraoperative detection tools such as fluorescence and portable gamma imaging will hopefully encourage prospectively designed clinical trials which can further substantiate the potential of the SN approach in becoming an integral part of staging in urological malignancies beyond penile cancer.
Clinical and translational imaging. 2016 Jul 04 [Epub]
O R Brouwer, H G van der Poel, R F Bevers, E J van Gennep, S Horenblas
Department of Urologyand Interventional Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands ; Interventional Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands., Department of Urology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands., Department of Urologyand Interventional Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands.