BERKELEY, CA (UroToday.com) - Penile cancer is rare in the USA and Europe (incidence of 1 per 100 000 population) but more frequent in tropical regions of Africa, Asia, and South America (2-4 per 100 000 population). Pathologically, however, tumors are identical in low- and high-frequency areas. The vast majority of penile cancers are squamous cell carcinomas arising in the squamous epithelium of the glans, coronal sulcus, or inner preputial surface. Thus penile tumors are mucosal in origin and should be distinguished and are different from adjacent skin tumors. However, their morphology is not uniform and there are distinctive clinico- pathological variants reported over the years since the description of penile epithelioma by Paget in 1890s, of spindle cell carcinoma by Ewing in 1921, and of verrucous carcinoma by Ackerman in 1949.
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The majority of known tumor entities were more recently described and the new WHO classification, now in its final stage of preparation, is presenting about 15 subtypes and variants of penile squamous cell carcinoma. They are described in detail in this report. A novel approach to this classification is the separation of penile carcinomas in 2 etiological groups, HPV and non-HPV related. There is a considerable evidence of the predictable relationship of subtypes of penile carcinomas and the presence or absence of the human papillomavirus. Another feature of this publication is the emphasis in the differential diagnosis of the subtypes of penile carcinomas, some of which are difficult to be differentiated from each other, especially the low-grade verruciform neoplasms. A summary of 3 major clinical and outcome studies according to subtypes of carcinomas is also presented as well as the categorization of tumours in prognostic risk groups.
Antonio L. Cubilla as part of Beyond the Abstract on UroToday.com. This initiative offers a method of publishing for the professional urology community. Authors are given an opportunity to expand on the circumstances, limitations etc... of their research by referencing the published abstract.
Instituto de Patologia e Investigacion, Brizuela 325, Asuncion, Paraguay