Temporal trends, tumor characteristics and stage-specific survival in penile non-squamous cell carcinoma vs. squamous cell carcinoma.

To compare Cancer-specific mortality (CSM) in patients with Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) vs. non-SCC penile cancer, since survival outcomes may differ between histological subtypes.

Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database (2004-2016), penile cancer patients of all stages were identified. Temporal trend analyses, cumulative incidence and Kaplan-Meier plots, multivariable Cox regression and Fine and Gray competing-risks regression analyses tested for CSM differences between non-SCC vs. SCC penile cancer patients.

Of 4,120 eligible penile cancer patients, 123 (3%) harbored non-SCC vs. 4,027 (97%) SCC. Of all non-SCC patients, 51 (41%) harbored melanomas, 42 (34%) basal cell carcinomas, 10 (8%) adenocarcinomas, eight (6.5%) skin appendage malignancies, six (5%) epithelial cell neoplasms, two (1.5%) neuroendocrine tumors, two (1.5%) lymphomas, two (1.5%) sarcomas. Stage at presentation differed between non-SCC vs. SCC. In temporal trend analyses, non-SCC diagnoses neither decreased nor increased over time (p > 0.05). After stratification according to localized, locally advanced, and metastatic stage, no CSM differences were observed between non-SCC vs. SCC, with 5-year survival rates of 11 vs 11% (p = 0.9) for localized, 33 vs. 37% (p = 0.4) for locally advanced, and 1-year survival rates of 37 vs. 53% (p = 0.9) for metastatic penile cancer, respectively. After propensity score matching for patient and tumor characteristics and additional multivariable adjustment, no CSM differences between non-SCC vs. SCC were observed.

Non-SCC penile cancer is rare. Although exceptions exist, on average, non-SCC penile cancer has comparable CSM as SCC penile cancer patients, after stratification for localized, locally invasive, and metastatic disease.

Cancer causes & control : CCC. 2021 Sep 02 [Epub ahead of print]

Mike Wenzel, Nicolas Siron, Claudia Collà Ruvolo, Luigi Nocera, Christoph Würnschimmel, Zhe Tian, Shahrokh F Shariat, Fred Saad, Alberto Briganti, Derya Tilki, Severine Banek, Luis A Kluth, Frederik C Roos, Felix K H Chun, Pierre I Karakiewicz

Division of Urology, Cancer Prognostictables and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montréal Health Center, Montreal, QC, Canada. ., Division of Urology, Cancer Prognostictables and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montréal Health Center, Montreal, QC, Canada., Martini-Klinik Prostate Cancer Center, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany., Department of Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria., Department of Urology and Division of Experimental Oncology, URI, Urological Research Institute, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy., Department of Urology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Goethe University Frankfurt, Theodor- Stern Kai 7, 60590, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

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