Penile squamous cell carcinoma is a rare condition that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in its advanced stages. In today's rapidly evolving field of oncology, physicians and scientists are learning to harness the power of genomics to drive innovative targeted, immunotherapeutic, and multimodal strategies across different cancer types; however, there remains a pressing need for a deeper understanding of the molecular pathways of penile carcinogenesis in order to help direct individualized therapy for patients with this disease. In this article, we will review our current understanding of some of the biologic mechanisms, including virally and nonvirally based pathways, which are thought to drive the development and progression of penile cancer.
Urologic oncology. 2020 Jul 17 [Epub ahead of print]
Ali Hajiran, Taylor Bracco, Logan Zemp, Philippe E Spiess
Department of Genitourinary Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL., Department of Genitourinary Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL. Electronic address: .