People living with HIV (PLHIV) are at a high risk of developing HPV-related cancers. HPV-related malignancies occur frequently and/or are high among PLHIV, with cervical cancer as a designated AIDS-defining condition. We aimed to explore the evidence on the interplay of HIV and HPV-related cancers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).
The scoping review was guided by Arksey and O'Malley's framework. We searched for literature from the following databases: PubMed; World Health Organization (WHO) Library; Science Direct; Google Scholar and EBSCOhost (Academic search complete, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, CINAHL). Studies reporting on evidence HIV and HPV-related cancers interplay in SSA were eligible for inclusion in this review. The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) tool was used to assess the risk of bias of the included studies. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was used for reporting the search results. Thematic analysis used to reveal the emerging themes from the included studies.
A total of 74 potentially eligible articles were screened. Of these, nine (7 reviews, 1 transversal case controls, and 1 quantitative study) were eligible for data extraction. The studies reported about a total of 16,351 participants in different settings. The nine included studies showed evidence of cervical cancer among HIV-infected women and distribution of HPV infection and cervical abnormalities among HIV-positive individuals. In the four studies generalizing about HIV and anal cancer, only one reported about HPV. Two studies generally reported about HIV and head and neck cancers and one reported about interaction of HIV with vaginal cancer, vulvar cancer, and penile cancer, respectively.
HIV positivity is associated with increased prevalence of HPV infection on different anatomic sites, which will result in increased burden of HPV-related cancers among PLHIV. Furthermore, primary studies with robust study designs aimed at investigating the risk developing HPV-related cancers among PLHIV are recommended. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42017062403.
Systematic reviews. 2020 Apr 22*** epublish ***
Kabelo Matjie Bridget Lekoane, Desmond Kuupiel, Tivani P Mashamba-Thompson, Themba G Ginindza
Discipline of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa., Discipline of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. .