Management of clinically node-negative groin in patients with penile cancer.

Malignant penile neoplasms are commonly squamous etiology, with the inguinal nodes being the first echelon of spread. The disease spreads to the pelvic lymph nodes only after metastases to the groin nodes, and this is the most important prognostic factor in penile carcinoma. While treatment of penile carcinoma with proven metastases to the inguinal lymph nodes mandates ilioinguinal lymph node dissection, the treatment of patients with impalpable nodes is more controversial. Overtreatment leads to excessive treatment-related morbidity in these patients, while a wait-and-see policy runs the risk of patients presenting with inguinal and distant metastases, which would have been curable at presentation. Unfortunately, no single imaging modality has been proved to be convincingly superior in the staging, and hence, management of the clinically negative groin has been subject to debate. While some high volume centers have promoted the use of dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy, others advocate the use of the modified inguinal lymph node template to stage the groin adequately. Newer techniques such as video endoscopic inguinal lymph node dissection have been introduced as an alternative to the original radical inguinal lymphadenectomy to reduce morbidity.

Indian journal of urology : IJU : journal of the Urological Society of India. 0000 Jan [Epub]

Devayani Niyogi, Jarin Noronha, Mahendra Pal, Ganesh Bakshi, Gagan Prakash

Department of Surgical Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.