Organ-sparing procedures in GU cancer: part 3-organ-sparing procedures in urothelial cancer of upper tract, bladder and urethra.

The impact of radical surgery for urothelial carcinoma is significant on patient's quality of life. Organ-sparing surgery (OSS) can provide comparable oncological outcomes and with improved quality of life. In this review, we summarize the indications, techniques and outcomes of OSS for these tumors.

PubMed® was searched for relevant articles. Keywords used were: for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC): endoscopic, ureteroscopic/percutaneous management, laser ablation; for urothelial bladder cancer: bladder preservation, trimodal therapy, muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC); for urethral cancer: urethra/penile-sparing, urethral carcinoma.

Kidney-sparing surgery is an option in patients with low-risk UTUC with better renal function preservation and comparable oncological control to radical nephroureterectomy. In select patients with MIBC, trimodal therapy has better quality of life and comparable oncological control to radical cystectomy. In distal male urethral cancer, penile conserving surgery is feasible and offers acceptable survival outcomes. In female urethral cancer, organ preservation can be achieved, in addition to OSS, through radiation.

In the appropriately selected patient, OSS in upper tract, bladder and urethral carcinoma has comparable oncological outcomes to radical surgery and with the additional benefit of improved quality of life.

International urology and nephrology. 2019 Jul 27 [Epub ahead of print]

Mahmoud I Khalil, Jeffrey T Alliston, Jonathan J Bauer-Erickson, Rodney Davis, Nabil K Bissada, Mohamed H Kamel

Department of Urology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA., Department of Urology, Baylor College of Medicine and Michael E. De Bakey VA Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA., Department of Urology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA. .