Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the male proximal urethra is an aggressive and rare urogenital malignancy.
To review the surgical management and outcomes for male proximal urethral SCCs within a single centre and to suggest an algorithm for the surgical management of these rare tumours.
This was a retrospective study of patients undergoing surgery for male proximal urethral SCC within a single tertiary academic centre managing rare genital tumours. Ten patients with a histological diagnosis of proximal urethral SCC were identified from an institutional database over a period of 10 yr with a median follow-up of 22.5 mo (standard deviation±25.77 mo).
Pathological staging, surgical treatment, and neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment were recorded. Complications according to the Clavien-Dindo classification and overall survival rates were recorded. Kaplan-Meier curves were used for overall survival.
A total of 10 patients were identified of whom eight underwent panurethrectomy and radical prostatectomy. Radical inguinal lymphadenectomy was performed in five patients, which confirmed bilateral metastatic disease. Perioperative complications were reported in six patients (Clavien I and II). Within 6 mo of surgery, 90% of patients developed distant metastatic disease. Nine patients died of urethra cancer during the follow-up. One patient is still on follow-up. The median overall follow-up was 13.92 mo (range: 5-91 mo). At 5 yr, cancer-specific/overall survival was 10%. A limitation of this study is the retrospective design, which is unavoidable for such a rare disease.
Radical surgery allows local disease control, but despite neo/adjuvant treatment, proximal urethral SCC is associated with poor survival outcomes and progression to distant metastatic disease within 6 mo.
Proximal urethral squamous cell carcinoma is a rare cancer in men which is often detected late. Patients often present with problems such as voiding, urethral bleeding, or a palpable mass. Aggressive surgery allows local control, but despite this the overall survival is poor. Adjuvant and neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy can improve survival. Multicentric randomised trials are needed to identify the correct treatment modality.
European urology focus. 2019 Mar 07 [Epub ahead of print]
Fabio Castiglione, Hussain M Alnajjar, Michelle Christodoulidou, Maarten Albersen, Arie Parnham, Alex Freeman, Charles Jameson, Anita Mitra, Raj Nigam, Peter Malone, Asif Muneer, Trauma and Reconstructive Urology Working Party of the European Association of Urology Young Academic Urologists
Department of Urology, University College London Hospital, London, UK; NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, University College London Hospital, London, UK; Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London, UK., Department of Urology, University College London Hospital, London, UK., Department of Pathology, University College London Hospital, London, UK., Department of Oncology, University College London Hospital, London, UK., Department of Urology, University College London Hospital, London, UK; NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, University College London Hospital, London, UK; Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London, UK. Electronic address: .