Malignant Tumors of the Penis - Dia-gnostics and Therapy.

Penile cancer belongs to group of relatively rare malignancies. It represents, on average, 0.5-1% of all tumours in males globally and occurs predominantly in older individuals (> 65 years). The geographical distribution of malignant cancer of the penis is reported. A higher incidence is observed in less developed parts of the world, particularly in South America, Southeast Asia, and some areas of Africa (> 2.0/100,000). In Slovakia, there has been a recent increase in incidence (1.1/100,000 in 2011). Mortality has stabilized at 0.3/100,000 in recent years. Significant risk factors for malignant cancers include social and cultural habits and hygienic and religious practices. Important risk factors are inadequate hygiene of the foreskin sac, phimosis, human papillomavirus infection, sexual promiscuity, smoking, genital infections, and a low socio-economic and educational status.

The present paper provides an overview of pathology, symptomatology, diagnostic approaches, and classification of the extent of the disease. Treatment of the primary tumour depends on the extent of the disease and includes topical treatment, photodynamic treatment, cryoablation, laser photocoagulation, conservative surgical treatment, especially circumcision, and even radical treatment - penile amputation with perineal urethrostomy. An important part of the management of this malignancy is surgical treatment of metastases in inguinal lymph nodes. The article devotes more attention to non-surgical treatment modalities, in particular radiotherapy (external and brachytherapy) and systemic therapy (chemotherapy and biologic therapy), offering an overview of the indications and regimens in the adjuvant, neoadjuvant and palliative approaches, with and without concomitant chemoradiotherapy, and describes possible adverse effects of the treatments.  Conclusion: Patients with penile cancer should be concentrated in centres that have abundant experience in the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Key words penile cancer - surgical treatment - radiotherapy - chemotherapy - biologic therapy The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers. Submitted: 12. 11. 2018 Accepted: 12. 12. 2018.

Klinicka onkologie : casopis Ceske a Slovenske onkologicke spolecnosti. 2019 Jan [Epub]

B Mrinakova, M Ondrušová, M Švantnerová, D Ondruš

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