Detection of lymph node metastases in penile cancer.

Penile cancer (PC) is a relatively rare malignancy in the United States (US) but a greater concern in developing nations. Lymph node imaging remains critical to the staging and treatment of this disease as metastases develop in a predictable, anatomic fashion. Early surgical intervention remains a mainstay in treatment and imaging often aids in decision making. This review highlights the indications for imaging in both low-stage and advanced disease. Furthermore, we discuss the benefits and limitations of currently available imaging for staging of inguinal and pelvic lymph nodes in PC and novel modalities in development.

Translational andrology and urology. 2018 Oct [Epub]

Jonathan B Bloom, Michael Stern, Neel H Patel, Michael Zhang, John L Phillips

Urologic Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA., Department of Urology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA.