Penile cancer in Maranhão, Northeast Brazil: the highest incidence globally?

The objectives of this study were to determine the minimum incidence of penile cancer in the poorest Brazilian state, and to describe the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with the disease.

A retrospective study of 392 patients diagnosed with penile cancer in the three most important referral center in the state was conducted during 2004-2014.

The age-standardized incidence was 6.15 per 100,000 and the crude annual incidence was 1.18 per 100,000. More than half (61.1%) of the tumors were histological grades 2 and 3, and 66.4% of tumors were classified as at least stage T2. The average age of patients was 58.6 ± 15.7 years (range, 18 to 103 years), with 20.8% of patients ≤40 years of age at diagnosis. The vast majority underwent penectomy (93%). Only 41.8% underwent lymphadenectomy, 58 patients (14.8%) received chemotherapy, and 54 patients (13.8%) received radiotherapy. Stage 3/4 and vascular invasion were statically significant at disease-free survival analysis.

The state of Maranhão has the highest incidence of penile cancer in Brazil and globally. Tumors are locally advanced and at the time of diagnosis, and there is a high frequency among young individuals. Patients have a low socioeconomic status, making it difficult to complete treatment and receive appropriate follow-up.

BMC urology. 2018 May 29*** epublish ***

Ronald Wagner Pereira Coelho, Jaqueline Diniz Pinho, Janise Silva Moreno, Dimitrius Vidal E Oliveira Garbis, Athiene Maniva Teixeira do Nascimento, Joyce Santos Larges, José Ribamar Rodrigues Calixto, Leandra Naira Zambelli Ramalho, Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva, Leudivan Ribeiro Nogueira, Laisson de Moura Feitoza, Gyl Eanes Barros Silva

Aldenora Bello Cancer Hospital, Seroa da Mota Street, Apeadouro, São Luís, 65031-630, Brazil., Federal University of Pará, Brazil, Gov. José Malcher Avenue, Belém, 66055-260, Brazil., Federal University of Maranhão, São Luís, Brazil, dos Portugueses Avenue, Bacanga, São Luís, 65080-805, Brazil., University Hospital of Federal University of Maranhão, Barão de Itapari Street, Centro, São Luís, Brazil., Department of Radiology and Pathology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School of University of São Paulo, Bandeirantes Avenue, Monte Alegre, Ribeirão Preto, 14049-900, Brazil., Public Heath Departament, Federal University of Maranhão, São Luís, Brazil, dos Portugueses Avenue, Bacanga, São Luís, 65080-805, Brazil., University Hospital of Federal University of Maranhão, Barão de Itapari Street, Centro, São Luís, Brazil. .

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