[Penile cancer: diagnosis and staging]

Penile cancer is often an obvious visual diagnosis but histologic verification should be obtained prior to treatment. The clinical examination should determine the tumor stage and whether it has infiltrated the cavernous bodies and/or the urethra and it should adequately assess the inguinal lymph nodes. Preoperative imaging of the lesion is only indicated in equivocal cases. Curative treatment requires the complete removal of the primary tumor and all metastatic lymph nodes. Lymph node management is the key prognostic factor in the treatment of penile cancer. No imagining technique such as the ultrasound, CT, MRI or PET/CT is able to adequately detect micrometastatic lymph nodes. Therefore, invasive (inguinal) lymph node diagnosis is indicated for all tumour stages from pT1G2. Over 90% of penile cancer cases can be cured with early diagnosis and adequate treatment if routine self-examination and physical examinations are regularly performed.

Der Urologe. Ausg. A. 2018 Mar 09 [Epub ahead of print]

K-D Sievert, D-L Dräger, F-M Köhn, S Milerski, C Protzel, O W Hakenberg

Urologische Klinik und Poliklinik, Universitätsmedizin Rostock, Ernst-Heydemann-Str. 6, 18057, Rostock, Deutschland. ., Urologische Klinik und Poliklinik, Universitätsmedizin Rostock, Ernst-Heydemann-Str. 6, 18057, Rostock, Deutschland., Andrologicum München, München, Deutschland., Fachbereich Urologie, Helios Klinik Schwerin, Schwerin, Deutschland.

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