Penile cancer is a rare malignancy with a high propensity for regional dissemination. Current guidelines recommend inguinal lymphadenectomy in patients with penile cancer for palpable inguinal lymph nodes or in certain cases of nonpalpable inguinal lymph nodes. For many years, this procedure was performed with a traditional open approach and carried significant morbidity due to severe lymphedema, flap necrosis, wound infections, and seroma formation. The evolution of inguinal lymphadenectomy surgery for patients with penile cancer to a more minimally invasive approach has greatly reduced the morbidity of the procedure. Complications of inguinal lymphadenectomy can be minimized with modifications in surgical approach with the use of endoscopic, robotic, and various reconstructive methods. This review focuses on various intraoperative techniques to reduce morbidity in inguinal lymphadenectomies for penile cancer.
Translational andrology and urology. 2017 Oct [Epub]
Manik K Gupta, Amar P Patel, Viraj A Master
Department of Urology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.