Department of Blood Purification Center, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, Qingdao University Medical College, Yantai 264000, Shandong Province, P.R. China.
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) have shown significant antiproliferative and apoptotic properties in various types of cancer cells, including prostate cancer cells, and are therefore being evaluated as a treatment modality. However, the mechanism by which sodium butyrate (SB) induces apoptosis is not completely understood. We focused on SB which exists in the intestine and is therefore expected to have less adverse effects. In this study, three prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, DU145 and PC-3) were treated in vitro with different concentrations of SB. Cell proliferation was studied by the XTT assay; cell cycle analysis and induction of apoptosis were studied by laser scanning cytometry. Western blot analysis was used to study p21, p27, CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, caspase-3, caspase-7, Fas, FADD, TRADD, Bcl-2 and Bax protein expression. SB inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner in human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP, DU145 and PC-3). Western blot analysis showed dose-dependent increases of p21 levels in DU145 and PC-3 cells, and dose-dependent decreases of CDK2, CDK4, CDK6 and procaspase-3 protein levels in all three prostate cancer cell lines. Bcl-xL was significantly down-regulated in DU145 cells, and Bcl-2 was significantly down-regulated in PC-3 and LNCaP cells. No significant changes were observed in procaspase-7, TRADD and Bax expression, although slight decreases in Fas and FADD expression were seen in all three prostate cancer cell lines. Analysis of cell morphology using laser scanning microscopy detected condensed and fragmented nuclei. In conclusion, SB induces G1 and G2 arrest by increasing p21 expression resulting in CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 down-regulation. SB potently induced apoptosis, which was accompanied by DNA fragmentation, down-regulated Bcl-2 in LNCaP and PC-3 cells, Bcl-xL in DU145 cells, and down-regulated procaspase-3, but not procaspase-7, in these human prostate cancer cell lines. These results suggest that SB may serve as a new modality for the treatment of hormone refractory prostate cancer.
Qiu J, Gao Z, Shima H. Are you the author?
Reference: Oncol Rep. 2012 Jan;27(1):160-7.