Advances in Prostatic Diagnostics in Dogs: The Role of Canine Prostatic Specific Esterase in the Early Diagnosis of Prostatic Disorders.

In last years, following the increased canine life expectancy and the rising attention pet-owners devote to their animals, several authors have carried on investigations concerning new techniques to early identify canine prostatic disorders that might affect the dog's quality of life. Prostatic disorders often have an asymptomatic onset and their early diagnosis is difficult: hence, they are usually identified at an advanced stage, only. Traditionally, the diagnosis of prostatic disorders is based on noninvasive tools, such as transrectal and abdominal palpation, seminal or prostatic fluid evaluation, and urinalysis and imaging. On the other hand, a definite diagnosis of prostatic abnormalities could be achieved through prostatic parenchyma Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) or biopsy. However, these investigations are performed rarely because of their invasiveness. Thus, several authors investigated canine serum biomarkers in order to achieve an earlier diagnostic timing and to apply therapeutic strategies for better outcomes. The Canine Prostatic Specific Esterase (CPSE) has been identified as a suitable biomarker to be included in a prostate health screening program, following the model of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in human medicine. A higher CPSE in dogs suffering from several prostatic diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia, bacterial prostatitis, or prostatic carcinoma, was reported in literature. Thanks to the potential usefulness in clinical practice, further studies should investigate the potential role of CPSE in monitoring the medical treatment success in the male reproductive system. Moreover, the spreading availability of serum biomarkers, easily carried out on blood samples in clinical practice, could assure a more accurate evaluation of the actual prevalence of prostatic disorders. The CPSE is actually recognized as a promising diagnostic tool for the detection of prostatic disorders in a "prostate health screening program," in order to properly select those patients requiring further more accurate and expensive diagnostic investigations.

Topics in companion animal medicine. 2018 Sep 08 [Epub]

Salvatore Alonge, Monica Melandri, Giulio Aiudi, Giovanni Michele Lacalandra

Società Veterinaria "Il Melograno" Srl, Varese, Italy; Dipartimento di Medicina Veterinaria (DiMeV), Section of Surgery and Obstetrics, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Italy. Electronic address: ., Società Veterinaria "Il Melograno" Srl, Varese, Italy. Electronic address: ., Dipartimento di Medicina Veterinaria (DiMeV), Section of Surgery and Obstetrics, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Italy. Electronic address: ., Dipartimento di Medicina Veterinaria (DiMeV), Section of Surgery and Obstetrics, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Italy. Electronic address: .

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