Grafting of cryopreserved testicular tissue is a promising tool for fertility and testicular function preservation in endangered species, mutant animals, or cancer patients for future use. In this study, we aimed to improve the whole neonatal mouse testicular tissue cryopreservation protocols by comparing cryosurvival, spermatogenesis, and androgen production of grafted testicular tissue after cryopreservation with three different vitrification protocols and an automated computed controlled-rate freezing. Whole neonatal mouse testes were vitrified with various vitrification solutions (V1) 40% EG + 18% Ficoll + 0.35 M Sucrose, (V2) DAP 213 (2 M DMSO + 1 M Acetamid + 3 M PG), or (V3) 15% EG + 15% PG + 0.5 M Sucrose (total solute concentration V1:74.34%, V2:44.0%, and V3:49.22% wt/vol). Alternatively, neonatal testicular tissue was also frozen in 0.7 M DMSO +5% fetal bovine serum using controlled-rate freezing and compared to fresh grafted testicular tissue, sham grafted controls, and the vitrification protocol groups. Fresh (n = 4) and frozen-thawed (n = 4) testes tissues were grafted onto the flank of castrated male NCr Nude recipient mouse. The grafts were harvested after three months. Fresh or frozen-thawed grafts with controlled-rate freezing had the highest rate of tissue survival compared to other vitrified protocols after harvesting (p < 0.05). Both controlled-rate freezing and V1 protocol groups displayed the most advanced stages of spermatogenesis with elongated spermatids and spermatozoa in 17.6 ± 1.3% and 16.3 ± 1.9% of seminiferous tubules based on histopathological evaluation, respectively. Hosts of the testicular graft from controlled-rate freezing had higher levels of serum testosterone compared to all other vitrified-thawed graft groups (p < 0.05). This study shows that completed spermatogenesis from whole neonatal mouse testes were obtained when frozen with controlled-rate freezing and V1 vitrification solution and that testicular cryopreservation efficacy vary with the protocol and vitrification technique.
Cryobiology. 2018 Sep 06 [Epub ahead of print]
Cengiz Yildiz, Brendan Mullen, Keith Jarvi, Colin McKerlie, Kirk C Lo
Department of Reproduction and Artificial Insemination, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mustafa Kemal, 31000, Hatay, Turkey. Electronic address: ., Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada., Division of Urology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada., The Hospital for Sick Children & Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.