Chronic exposure to microcystin-leucine-arginine promoted proliferation of prostate epithelial cells resulting in benign prostatic hyperplasia

Microcystin-leucine-arginine (MC-LR), as a most common and deleterious variant among all structural analogues of Microcystins (MCs), can cause male reproductive dysfunction. However, its toxic effects on prostate in adult mice have not been invested in detail. In this study, we observed that MC-LR could enter prostate tissues and induce focal hyperplasia and prostate inflammation. Moreover, increased levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and prostate acid phosphatase (PAP) in serum of mice following chronic exposure to MC-LR were detected. We also examined increased expression of forkhead box protein M1 (FOXM1) and PSA in human prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1) treated with MC-LR at low levels, and FOXM1 could regulate PSA expression. Furthermore, MC-LR also induced expression of CyclinD1 via FOXM1/Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways in RWPE-1 cells, promoting proliferation of prostate epithelial cells, resulting in prostatic hyperplasia in vivo. As a foreign substance, MC-LR also induced immune reaction in RWPE-1 cells mediated by NF-κB pathway, promoting production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that MC-LR may induce prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis in mice following chronic low-dose exposure to MC-LR. This work may provide new perspectives in developing new diagnosis and treatment strategies for MC-LR-induced prostatic toxicity.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987). 2018 Aug 17 [Epub ahead of print]

Chun Pan, Yabing Chen, Tianchi Xu, Jing Wang, Dongmei Li, Xiaodong Han

Immunology and Reproduction Biology Laboratory & State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China., Immunology and Reproduction Biology Laboratory & State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China. Electronic address: .

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