The Anticancer Effects of Garlic Extracts on Bladder Cancer Compared to Cisplatin: A Common Mechanism of Action via Centromere Protein M

Although garlic induces apoptosis in cancer cells, it is unclear whether the effects are similar to those of cisplatin against bladder cancer (BC). Therefore, this study investigated whether garlic extracts and cisplatin show similar activity when used to treat BC. The effect of garlic on T24 BC cell line was examined in a BALB/C-nude mouse xenograft model and compared with that of cisplatin. Tissue microarray analysis and gene network analysis were performed to identify differences in gene expression by control tumors and tumors exposed to garlic extract or cisplatin. Investigation of gene expression based on tissues from 165 BC patients and normal controls was then performed to identify common targets of garlic and cisplatin. Tumor volume and tumor weight in cisplatin (0.05[Formula: see text]mg/kg)- and garlic-treated mice were significantly smaller than those in negative control mice. However, cisplatin-treated mice also showed a significant reduction in body weight. Microarray analysis of tumor tissue identified 515 common anticancer genes in the garlic and cisplatin groups ([Formula: see text]). Gene network analysis of 252 of these genes using the Cytoscape and ClueGo software packages mapped 17 genes and 9 gene ontologies to gene networks. BC (NMIBC and MIBC) patients with low expression of centromere protein M (CENPM) showed significantly better progression-free survival than those with high expression. Garlic extract shows anticancer activity in vivo similar to that of cisplatin, with no evident of side effects. Both appear to act by targeting protein-DNA complex assembly; in particular, expression of CENPM.

The American journal of Chinese medicine. 2018 Mar 29 [Epub ahead of print]

Won Tae Kim, Sung-Pil Seo, Young Joon Byun, Ho-Won Kang, Yong-June Kim, Sang-Cheol Lee, Pildu Jeong, Hye-Jin Song, Soo Young Choe, Dong-Joon Kim, Seon-Kyu Kim, Yun Sok Ha, Sung-Kwon Moon, Geun Taek Lee, Isaac Yi Kim, Seok Joong Yun, Wun-Jae Kim

* Department of Urology, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju, Chungbuk, South Korea., † Department of Urology, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju, Chungbuk, South Korea., ‡ EBO Co. Ltd., Cheongju, South Korea., ¶ TNT Research Co. Ltd., Anyang, South Korea., ∥ Medical Genomics Research Center, Korean Bioinformation Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Department of Functional Genomics, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, South Korea., ** Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea., †† School of Food Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Anseong, South Korea., ‡‡ Section of Urological Oncology, The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.