Context Daily variations in bladder size and position can negatively impact the ability to accurately deliver radiation. Aims We attempted to quantify how bladder volumes and positions change over the course of radiotherapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer and the planning target volume (PTV) margins required to account for such changes. Methods and material Cone-beam computed tomography (CT) images of 28 patients during their first, second, and third fractions and weekly thereafter were acquired. Bladders were contoured and the volume, centre of mass, and the maximal positions were recorded and compared to the planning CT scan. Statistical analysis Bladder parameters were analysed using regression analysis examining for time trends and correlation to the patient, tumour, or treatment-related factors. Results There was great variability in the mean bladder volumes during the radiotherapy courses (154.17 +/- 129.38 cm(3)). There were no statistically significant trends for volume changes. Deviations in bladder positions were seen but were small in magnitude. No patient factors were identified which could help predict bladder changes clinically. Bladder variability resulted in a high percentage of fractions (39.6%) in which part of the bladder was outside the PTV. Calculated PTV margins (for 90% of the population to receive 95% of the prescription dose) were 1.48 cm right, 1.15 cm left, 2.13 cm posterior, 1.52 cm anterior, 2.23 cm superior, and 0.52 cm inferior. Conclusions Because of random bladder changes, a significant number of fractions were treated in which the clinical target volume (CTV) fell outside of the PTV. Methods to minimize the amount of CTV that is missed on a fraction to fraction basis should be explored.
Cureus. 2017 Sep 01*** epublish ***
Andrew Kochan, Ryan Rivest, Katie Galloway, Pascal Lambert, Aldrich Ong, Rashmi Koul, Shahida Ahmed, Bashir Bashir, Harvey Quon
Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba., Radiation Oncology, CancerCare Manitoba, University of Manitoba., Epidemiology and Cancer Registry, CancerCare Manitoba, University of Manitoba., Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre.