Efficacy of early ureteral ligation on prevention of intravesical recurrence after radical nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma: a prospective single-arm multicenter clinical trial

The rate of intravesical recurrence after radical nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma is high. Seeding upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma cells onto the damaged bladder wall is considered to be one of the causes of intravesical recurrence after radical nephroureterectomy. We evaluated the utility of early ureteral ligation in preventing the intravesical recurrence.

This prospective single-arm clinical trial included patients who underwent radical nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma in the Tohoku Urological Evidence-Based Medicine Study Group between 2012 and 2013. Early ureteral ligation was defined as ligation of the ureter as quickly as possible after expanding the retroperitoneal space. A historical control was extracted from 454 patients who underwent radical nephroureterectomy in the same group, using propensity score-matched analysis. Intravesical recurrence-free survival rates were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Factors predicting intravesical recurrence were assessed using multivariate analyses.

Seventy-four patients underwent early ureteral ligation. Seventeen (23%) patients had intravesical recurrence with a median follow-up period of 24 months. The 1- and 2-year intravesical recurrence-free survival rates in the early ureteral ligation group were 81% and 76%, and in the control group 75% and 63%, respectively (P = 0.160). In patients with renal pelvic cancer, the 1- and 2-year intravesical recurrence-free survival rates in the early ureteral ligation group were 89% and 86%, but in the control group 74% and 64%, respectively (P = 0.025). However, intravesical recurrence-free survival rates were similar in patients with ureteral cancer. Multivariate analyses of a subset of patients with renal pelvic cancer identified early ureteral ligation as an independent predictor of intravesical recurrence.

Early ureteral ligation decreases the rate of intravesical recurrence after radical nephroureterectomy in patients with renal pelvic cancer. Thus, early ureteral ligation might help in prevention of intravesical recurrence for renal pelvic cancer.

Japanese journal of clinical oncology. 2017 Sep 01 [Epub]

Shinichi Yamashita, Akihiro Ito, Koji Mitsuzuka, Naomasa Ioritani, Shigeto Ishidoya, Yoshihiro Ikeda, Kenji Numahata, Kazuhiko Orikasa, Tatsuo Tochigi, Fumihiko Soma, Takashige Namima, Yoichi Arai

Department of Urology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai., Department of Urology, Japan Community Health Care Organization Sendai Hospital, Sendai., Department of Urology, Sendai City Hospital, Sendai., Department of Urology, Osaki Citizen Hospital, Osaki., Department of Urology, Yamagata Prefectural Central Hospital, Yamagata., Department of Urology, Kesennuma City Hospital, Kesennuma., Department of Urology, Miyagi Cancer Center, Natori., Department of Urology, Hachinohe City Hospital, Hachinohe., Department of Urology, Tohoku Rosai Hospital, Sendai, Japan.

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