Gastrointestinal Complications Following Radical Cystectomy Using Enhanced Recovery Protocol

The development of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols for patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) represents a significant advance in perioperative care.

To evaluate gastrointestinal (GI) complications following RC and urinary diversion (UD) using our institutional ERAS protocol.

We identified 377 consecutive cases of open RC and UD for which our ERAS protocol was used from May 2012 to December 2015. Exclusion criteria were consent refusal; non-bladder primary disease; palliative, salvage, or additional surgery; and prolonged postoperative intubation. A matched cohort of 144 patients for whom a traditional postoperative protocol (pre-ERAS) was used between 2003 and 2012 was selected for comparison.

A total of 292 ERAS patients with median age of 70 yr were included in the study, 65% of whom received an orthotopic neobladder. The median time to first flatus and bowel movement was 2 d. The median length of stay was 4 d. GI complications occurred in 45 patients (15.4%) during the first 30 d following RC, 93% of which were of minor grade. The most common GI complication was postoperative ileus (POI) in 34 cases (11.6%). Some 22 patients (7.5%) required a nasogastric tube, and parenteral nutrition was required in three patients. The rate of 30-d GI complications was significantly lower in the ERAS cohort than in the control group (13% vs 27%; p=0.003), as was the rate of POI (7% vs 23%; p<0.001). This effect was independent of other variables (hazard ratio 0.38, 95% confidence interval 0.18-0.82; p=0.01).

Our institutional ERAS protocol for RC is associated with significantly improved perioperative GI recovery and lower rates of GI complications. This protocol can be tested in multi-institutional studies to reduce GI morbidity associated with RC.

In this study, we showed that an enhanced recovery protocol for patients undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer was associated with a significantly shorter length of hospital stay and lower rates of gastrointestinal complications, especially postoperative ileus.

European urology focus. 2017 Apr 25 [Epub ahead of print]

Soroush T Bazargani, Hooman Djaladat, Hamed Ahmadi, Gus Miranda, Jie Cai, Anne K Schuckman, Siamak Daneshmand

USC Institute of Urology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA., Urology Department, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA., USC Institute of Urology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address: .