Progress has been slow in systemic management of locally advanced and metastatic bladder cancer over the past 20 years. However, the recent approval of immunotherapy with atezolizumab and nivolumab for second-line salvage therapy may usher in an era of more rapid improvement.
Systemic treatment is suboptimal and is an area of substantial unmet medical need. The recent findings from The Cancer Genome Atlas project revealed promising pathways that may be amenable to targeted therapies. Promising results with treatment using vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors such as ramucirumab, sunitinib or bevacizumab, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 targeted therapies, epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, and fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitors, are undergoing clinical trials and are discussed later.
Urologic oncology. 2017 Mar 30 [Epub ahead of print]
Jeanny B Aragon-Ching, Donald L Trump
GU Medical Oncology, Inova Schar Cancer Institute, Fairfax, VA. Electronic address: ., GU Medical Oncology, Inova Schar Cancer Institute, Fairfax, VA.
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