Emerging preclinical findings have indicated that steroid hormone receptor signaling plays an important role in bladder cancer outgrowth. In particular, androgen-mediated androgen receptor signals have been shown to correlate with the promotion of tumor development and progression, which may clearly explain some sex-specific differences in bladder cancer. This review summarizes and discusses the available data, suggesting the involvement of androgens and/or the androgen receptor pathways in urothelial carcinogenesis as well as tumor growth. While the precise mechanisms of the functions of the androgen receptor in urothelial cells remain far from being fully understood, current evidence may offer chemopreventive or therapeutic options, using androgen deprivation therapy, in patients with bladder cancer.
Cancers. 2017 Feb 22*** epublish ***
Peng Li, Jinbo Chen, Hiroshi Miyamoto
Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. ., Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. ., Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. .