To develop a standardized digital reporting tool for cystoscopy of the urinary bladder using panoramic imaging.
An image processing and stitching software (Endorama(®)) was developed to generate panoramic images from cystoscopy data. In a processing phase, algorithms were modulated and refined by reference to cystoscopy sequences (n=30). Subsequently, standard systematic cystoscopies (n=12) were recorded in patients undergoing transurethral resection of a bladder tumor in order to create panoramic images.
All sequences were applicable for the development and refinements of the software. Processing increasingly allowed the creation of images illustrating large parts of the bladder and relevant anatomical landmarks in different locations. The pathway covered by the endoscope during the intervention was successfully illustrated as a route in the respective digital image. During the application phase panoramic images were successfully created in 10 out of 12 cases. The resolution of the images was 4096x2048 pixels and they required a median digital memory of 3.9MB (3.4-5.7). The panoramic images illustrated 22 relevant findings of which 7 were papillary tumors.
High-quality digital panoramic maps of the urinary bladder were created using specifically processed data of video-cystoscopy. In this preliminary series relevant findings were illustrated in the respective image. Our tool may help improve standardization of cystoscopy reports and reduce interobserver variability.
Urology. 2017 Feb 15 [Epub ahead of print]
M C Kriegmair, T Bergen, M Ritter, P Mandel, M S Michel, T Wittenberg, C Bolenz
Department of Urology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany. Electronic address: ., Image Processing and Medical Engineering Department, Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS, Erlangen, Germany., Department of Urology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany., Department of Urology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany., Department of Urology, University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.