Urinary NID2 and TWIST1 methylation to augment conventional urine cytology for the detection of bladder cancer

Abnormal methylation of urinary TWIST1 and NID2 conferred high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of urothelial carcinoma.

We examine the performance of the urine-based TWIST1/NID2 methylation assay with the addition of urine cytology for the detection of urothelial carcinoma.

A prospective multi-institutional study was conducted to assess the performance of a methylation assay for patients with hematuria or under surveillance for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). All patients underwent cystoscopy, a methylation assay, and cytology. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed for cytology alone, the methylation assay alone, and a combined model. Areas under the curve (AUC) were compared using likelihood ratio tests.

A total of 172 patients were enrolled (37% for hematuria and 63% NMIBC). The AUC for cytology alone with equivocal cytologies positive was 0.704, and improved to 0.773 with the addition of the DNA methylation assay (p < 0.001). When the equivocal cytologies were considered negative, the AUC improved from 0.558 to 0.697 with the addition of the DNA methylation assay (p = 0.003).

Addition of a TWIST1/NID2-based DNA methylation assay adds diagnostic value to urine cytology and the model is sensitive to the classification of equivocal cytology.

Cancer biomarkers : section A of Disease markers. 2017 Jan 13 [Epub ahead of print]

Joseph J Fantony, Thomas A Longo, Ajay Gopalakrishna, Richmond Owusu, Raymond S Lance, Wen-Chi Foo, Brant A Inman, Michael R Abern

Division of Urology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA., Division of Urology, Urology of Virginia, Hampton, VA, USA., Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA., Department of Urology, University of Illinois Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.