Currently, bladder cancer (BCa) evaluation depends mainly on traditional clinicopathological parameters encompassing tumor stage and grade, which will not reflect the behavior of the disease. Diverse molecular alterations are responsible for the heterogeneous course. The differences in molecular pathogenesis between non-invasive BCa and invasive BCa have been recognized. Molecular biomarkers are promising to predict progression and survival. The management of advanced BCa remains somewhat primitive in comparison with other more common malignancies. This topic will discuss the molecular pathways, biomarkers and potential targets that may improve the outcome in BCa.
Oncology reviews. 2016 Dec 14*** epublish ***
Amrallah A Mohammed, Hani El-Tanni, Hani M El-Khatib, Ahmad A Mirza, Abdulrahim A Mirza, Turki H Alturaifi
Department of Medical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt; Oncology Center, King Abdullah Medical City-Holy Capital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia., Oncology Center, King Abdullah Medical City-Holy Capital , Makkah, Saudi Arabia., Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Taif University , Taif, Saudi Arabia., Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University , Makkah, Saudi Arabia.