Management of muscle invasive, locally advanced and metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: a literature review with emphasis on the role of surgery

Locally advanced (T3b, T4 and N1-N3) and metastatic urothelial bladder cancer (BCa) is a lethal disease with poor survival outcomes. Combination chemotherapy remains the treatment of choice in patients with metastatic disease and an important part of treatment in addition to radical cystectomy (RC) in patients with locally advanced tumour. Approximately half of patients who underwent RC for muscle invasive BCa relapse after surgery with either local recurrence or distant metastasis. This review focuses on the management of muscle invasive, locally advanced and metastatic BCa with emphasis on the role of surgery; to summarize the current knowledge in order to enhance clinical decision-making and counselling process.

Translational andrology and urology. 2016 Oct [Epub]

Mohammad Abufaraj, Kilian Gust, Marco Moschini, Beat Foerster, Francesco Soria, Romain Mathieu, Shahrokh F Shariat

Department of Urology, Vienna General Hospital, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria., Department of Urology, Vienna General Hospital, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; ; Karl Landsteiner Institute of Urology and Andrology, Vienna, Austria., Department of Urology, Vienna General Hospital, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; ; Department of Urology, Urological Research Institute, Vita-Salute University, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy., Department of Urology, Vienna General Hospital, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; ; Department of Urology, Kantonsspital Winterthur, Winterthur, Switzerland., Department of Urology, Vienna General Hospital, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; ; Division of Urology, Department of Surgical Sciences, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, University of Studies of Torino, Turin, Italy., Department of Urology, Rennes University Hospital, Rennes, France., Department of Urology, Vienna General Hospital, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; ; Karl Landsteiner Institute of Urology and Andrology, Vienna, Austria; ; Department of Urology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA; ; Department of Urology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA.